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Entries in ohio state (6)


Amphibian Microbiomes as Indicators of Individual and Environmental Health

Sarah Leyman, The Ohio State University

Cases/Abstracts, Winner



Sarah Leyman1, Barbara Wolfe1, Paula Mouser2 

1The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 1900 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH, USA

2The Ohio State University Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodectic Engineering, 2070 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH, USA

Amphibians depend on their cutaneous microbial community as a first line of immune defense against disease. However, very few studies have been performed to characterize the bacterial genera found on the skin of different amphibian species and under different water quality conditions.  The goal of this study was to classify the bacterial genera present on the skin of two Lithobates species living in lakes of highly variant water characteristics on a reclaimed surface mine.  A second objective was to develop a baseline frog microbiome library on the site prior to shale gas exploration in order to monitor microbiome changes in association with environmental disturbance. Northern green frogs (Lithobates clamitans melanota) and American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeiana) were caught from 10 different lakes on the Wilds in Cumberland, OH.  Skin swabs were collected following a sterile saline solution rinse for bacterial characterization and to test for Batrachochytrium dendrobatiditis (Bd), the etiologic agent of amphibian chytridiomycosis.  Pharyngeal swabs were taken to test for ranavirus, another emerging disease of amphibians, and blood samples were collected to assess the heterophil-lymphocyte ratio as an indicator of stress. Water quality parameters were documented and water samples collected for chemical analysis at the time of frog capture for each site. The DNA was extracted from the bacterial swabs and sequenced using 454 pyro-sequencing.  At least one frog from each site tested was positive for Bd, but no frogs were positive for ranavirus.  Water quality among sites varied with regard to pH (4.10 to 8.66), conductivity (137.5 μS/cm to 3.51 mS/cm), ionic content, and dissolved organic carbon (0.13 mg/L to 11.7 mg/L).  Our study identified over 300 different genera of microbes representing 68 orders present on frogs on this site. Water quality parameters were found to be associated with differential microbial colonization and physiologic parameters.

*Click the thumbnail pictures below to see full size images*


Entry, Creative Corner
Kelsey Krammer, Ohio State

"Cat", oil"Hippo", oil"Rhino", oil


Making the best of your free time

Entry, Experiences
Joshua Yoo, Ohio State

"Take full advantage of your free time," is some of the best advice I have received in recent years from a respected mentor last spring.  While it seems trivial at first, it reminds me to live life to the fullest while also maintaining a sense of balance.  I'll never forgot the first day of class, we had a lecture on erythropoiesis and thinking that it was going to be a long semester.  Oddly enough, before I could blink, finals were around the corner.  While finals sometimes seemed to drag on, our class persevered with purpose and were delighted when break came.
I returned to Los Angeles to visit my family and catch up with old friends which was terrific.  I also took a fun short road trip to catch up with colleagues and mentors.  Sure, we keep in touch with people through email, phone, text, and etc, but nothing can replace a face to face meeting.  It was comforting to share stories with current and past veterinary students as we have all experienced many of the same joys and challenges of veterinary school.
Cleft PalateI was fortunate to schedule an externship at a southern California referral hospital which quite frankly, blew my socks off.  This was my first externship as a veterinary student and I really enjoyed the camaraderie, education, and support that the specialists, interns, and technicians gave me.  Working with interns who were recently in my shoes gave me a tangible idea of what to expect when I pursue internship.  Words can't describe how much I learned and enjoyed accompanying surgeons and interns on consults and then watching surgery being performed.  I saw a number of orthopedic and soft tissues surgeries but will especially remember watching a 7 pound gastric foreign body removal, laparoscopic gastropexy, and a secondary cleft palate repair.  I will definitely apply to the rotating internship at this hospital in my 4th year and look forward to other visiting other externships down the road.
I'm really thankful and glad for my externship as nothing can replace the clinical education.  In additionSeven pound gastric foreign body! to that, being able to experience the culture of the hospital through externship is something that can only be done face to face.  That said, I also caught up on Dexter and Homeland over break, so I'd say my break was a success. 




Entry, Creative Corner
Marie Severyn, Ohio State

Sucking my ThumbEnd of the AlleyOrange Sparkle


The better to smell you with

Entry, Creative Corner
Kristina Solch, Ohio State University

Elli the Smooth Collie